Electronic Access Control System: What Is It & How It Works

Electronic access control (EAC) systems are the vanguard against unauthorized entry and security breaches in modern security.

Transitioning from mechanical key and lock to sophisticated electronic systems is not just an upgrade but a revolution to control access, secure assets, and protect personnel.

In this digital age, understanding the mechanics and implications of electronic access control is imperative for robust, efficient security management.

What is an Electronic Access Control System?

RFID Door Access control System

An electronic access control (EAC) system is a sophisticated method for regulating entry into a building or area. Unlike a mechanical lock and key, these systems use electronic keys like keycards, biometric scanners, access cards, or mobile devices to grant or restrict access.

They are programmable with access software and can be integrated with other security systems like video surveillance, intrusion detection systems, and alarm sensors.

They offer a high level of customization and controlled access. These systems are essential in environments where security is paramount, providing a seamless blend of technology and safety.

How Does It Work?

An electronic access system authenticates a person’s identity at an access point before granting access. It involves three key components: a reader (like a card reader or biometric scanner), a control panel, and an electronic lock.

When a user presents their credentials (a keycard, fingerprint, etc.), the system compares it with the stored data.

The system signals the door to unlock to grant access if it’s a match. The process is fast, secure, and can be monitored remotely.

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  • Enhanced Security: Limits access to authorized personnel.
  • Customizable Access: Tailor individual access privileges.
  • Activity Tracking: Monitor and record entry and exit.
  • Integration Capability: Works with other security systems.
  • Remote Management: Control and modify access remotely.


  • System Complexity: Requires understanding of technology.
  • Initial Setup Cost: Can be expensive to install.
  • Vulnerability to Hacking: Potential for cyber threats.
  • Dependence on Power: Non-functional during power outages.

5 Essential Components of Electronic Access Control System

Smart Lock

1. Readers

Keypad access control systems [1] require users to enter a specific PIN code to gain entry. This type of system is straightforward and can be highly effective. Codes can be easily changed to maintain security, making it a flexible option for many environments.

Keypads are commonly used in residential buildings, offices, and secure areas within businesses.

Their simplicity and cost-effectiveness make them popular, though they can be less secure if codes are shared or not regularly updated.

2. Control Point

The control points or access portals are typically locked doors or gates where access is controlled. It is the physical barrier that the access control system operates on.

This component includes the electronic lock mechanism activated or deactivated by the access control system, allowing or restricting entrance based on the authentication process.

3. Management System

The management system is the central hub that operates the entire secured space managed by the access control system.

Access management systems are usually online systems that allow administrators to set up and modify access permissions, track access attempts, monitor access logs, and manage the system’s overall functionality.

This system can often integrate with other security systems, providing comprehensive management.

4. Credentials

Credentials are the means of identification used by individuals to gain access.

These can range from traditional items like an access card to more advanced options like biometric data (fingerprints, facial recognition) or digital credentials on smartphones.

The choice of credentials depends on the desired security level and the system’s capabilities.

5. Access Control Panel

The access panel, often in a secure central location, acts as the system’s central operating unit. It connects the readers, management system, and control points.

This panel processes the data from the readers, communicates with the management system, and controls the locking mechanism at the control point. It is a critical component that ensures the seamless operation of the entire system.

Three Types Of Electronic Access Control

1. Keypad

Keypad access control systems require users to enter a specific pin code to gain entry. This type of system is straightforward and can be highly effective. Codes can be easily changed to maintain security, making it a flexible option for many environments.

Keypads are commonly used in residential buildings, offices, and secure areas within businesses. Their simplicity and cost-effectiveness make them a popular choice, though they can be less secure if codes are shared or not regularly updated.

2. Key Fob & Key Card Reader

Key fobs and key card readers use a physical token – a key fob or an access card – that the user presents to the credential reader to gain access.

These systems offer a higher security level than keypads, as the tokens can have encrypted data, are difficult to duplicate, and can be deactivated if lost or stolen.

They are widely used in corporate offices, hotels, and high-security areas. Additionally, they allow for detailed tracking of attempted access, which can be essential for maintaining an audit trail.

3. Smartphone-Based

Smartphone-based systems represent the cutting edge of access control technology. Users can unlock doors using a smartphone app, often via Bluetooth or NFC technology.

Mobile access provides convenience and enhanced security, as phones are less likely to be shared and can be protected with biometric locks.

Furthermore, smartphone systems can integrate with other smart technologies and are ideal for modern, tech-savvy environments. However, they require users to have compatible smartphones and can be more complex to set up.

Who Uses Electronic Access Control System?

Electronic Door Lock

EAC systems are widely used across various sectors, including corporate offices, government buildings, healthcare facilities, educational institutions, and high-security areas.

They are essential for businesses that require regulated access to ensure safety and security. Residential complexes and individual homes are also increasingly adopting these systems for enhanced security and convenience.

What Is It For?

Lost/Stolen Keys

One primary use of EAC systems is to address the issue of lost or stolen keys. When lost or stolen, traditional physical keys pose a significant security risk.

Electronic systems eliminate this issue as digital credentials can be easily revoked or modified, ensuring security isn’t compromised.

Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA)

EAC systems can incorporate multi-factor authentication (commonly two-factor authentication) for heightened security.

MFA requires certain users to provide two or more verification factors to gain access, significantly reducing the likelihood of unauthorized access. It is particularly important in high-security environments or areas where sensitive information is stored.

Time & Role-Based Access

These systems allow for time and role-based access control, meaning access can be granted based on the authorized schedule and the user’s role within the organization.

This feature is useful for managing access to different areas during specific times and ensuring that only authorized persons can access certain zones.

Monitoring Reports

Electronic access systems provide monitoring and reporting capabilities. They can track and log entries and exits, providing valuable data for security auditing, investigating incidents, or understanding usage patterns within a facility.

Remote Access Control

Remote access control is another significant feature. Administrators can control and modify access permissions remotely, making it easier to manage access in real-time, regardless of their location. It is especially useful in large organizations or situations requiring immediate response.

How To Choose The Best EAC System

No Touch Switch with EM Lock & Access Control Device


When considering a cloud-based Electronic Access Control (EAC) system, assess its scalability, flexibility, and ease of remote management.

Online access control systems are ideal for businesses looking for a solution that offers real-time updates, centralized control, and reduced need for on-site hardware.

Ensure the system offers robust security protocols and data encryption to protect against cyber threats prevalent in digital networks.

Visitor Management Features

Choose an EAC system with comprehensive visitor management features if your business frequently hosts guests. Look for systems that can pre-register visitors, issue temporary access credentials, and track visitor movements. This feature is crucial for maintaining security while providing a seamless experience for guests.

Delivery Solutions

For businesses that handle many deliveries, opt for an EAC system with delivery management solutions. These systems should accommodate secure delivery access, possibly through one-time access codes or designated delivery areas, ensuring packages are securely received without compromising overall building security.

Multi-site & Multiple Building EAC

For organizations operating across multiple sites or buildings, select an EAC system that can be efficiently managed on a larger scale.

The system should allow for centralized control of multiple locations, with the ability to set unique access permissions and monitor activities across all sites from a single platform.

Offline & Online EAC

Consider whether you need an EAC system that can operate offline and online. An offline-capable system ensures continuous operation in environments where network connectivity is inconsistent.

However, ensure that the system records access events even offline for later synchronization and review when the network is restored.


Q: Are electronic access control systems secure?

A: Yes, electronic access control systems are secure. They offer enhanced security features such as encryption, multi-factor authentication, and real-time monitoring, significantly reducing the risk of unauthorized access. Regular software updates and robust cybersecurity [2] measures further bolster their security.

Q: Can electronic access control systems be integrated with other security systems?

A: Absolutely. Electronic access control systems can be integrated with other security systems, including surveillance cameras, alarm systems, and fire safety systems. This integration provides a comprehensive security solution, enabling centralized management and streamlined security protocols.

Q: Are electronic access control systems suitable for residential use?

A: Electronic access control systems are increasingly popular for residential use, offering homeowners enhanced security, convenience, and control. Systems can range from simple keycard or keypad entry to advanced biometric systems tailored to individual home security needs.

Key Takeaways

Electronic access control systems represent a leap forward in security technology, offering customizable, scalable, and integrated solutions for businesses and residential settings.

With their advanced features and robust security protocols, these systems provide peace of mind and efficient management of access control.

Are you looking to upgrade your security with an electronic access control system? Contact Safe and Sound Security for expert advice and a free consultation.

Secure your premises with the latest access control technology – reach out to us today and take the first step towards enhanced security!


  1. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/security/business/security-101/what-is-access-control
  2. https://www.ibm.com/topics/cybersecurity

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